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Unit 38: Undertake Colour Management Procedures

1 Understand key issues relating to undertaking colour management procedures

1.1 Explain the principles of colour theory, colour mode and colour profiles

In this section I will be explaining the key principles of colour theory, colour mode and colour profiles. I will also be providing examples from my own work as a Marketing Assistant.

Colour Theory

Firstly colour theory consists of multiple definitions, concepts and design applications. To use colour effectively in your designs, you need to understand a few colour concepts as well as some colour theory terminology.

There are three basic categories of colour theory that are logical and useful:

  • The Colour Wheel
  • Colour Harmony
  • The context of how colours are used

The Colour Wheel

The Colour Wheel is a chart representing the relationships between colours. Based on a circle showing the colours of the spectrum, was discovered in 1666 and is an invention credited to Sir Isaac Newton. The classic colour wheel shows hues arranged in a circle, connected by lines or shapes. Close to the middle of the circle, the colours are less pure. Whereas at the outer edge of the circle, the colour are more pure and and more saturated.

The colours include Primary colours (red, yellow and blue), Secondary colours (orange, green and violet), and tertiary colours (yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet, red-orange and yellow-orange).

theory-wheel-history

Primary Colours

The three additive primary colours are red, green and blue. This means that, by additively mixing the colours red, green and blue in varying amounts, almost all other colours can be produced. They cannot be mixed from other colours and they are the source of all the other colours.When the three primaries are added together in equal amounts, white is also produced.

Flyeralarm_RGB_de

Secondary Colours

In colour theory, the secondary colours are green, orange and purple. They are created by mixing two primary colours. The ratio of primary colours you use when you mix will determine the final hue of the secondary colours.

secondary-colors

Tertiary colours

Tertiary colours are combinations of primary and secondary colours. There are six tertiary colours: red-orange, yellow-orange, yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet and red-violet.

tertiary_colours

 

Colour Harmony

Colour harmony is the theory of combining colours in a fashion that is harmonious to the eye. This means it is able to showcase what colours work well together to deliver visual interest and a sense of order.

You can used the colour wheel to help you identify harmonious colour combinations. The following colour harmonies are based on geometric relationships on the colour wheel. Therefore, we can represent them as shapes. You are able to rotate these shapes around the central point of the colour wheel to create limitless colour combinations. Below are examples of colour harmony theories:

Complementary

Complementary colour schemes use two opposite colours on the wheel. This is the most common colour scheme and is easy to find in all sorts of designs.

harmony-complementary

Monochromatic

Monochromatic colour schemes use three different values of the same colour.

harmony-mono

Analogous

Analogous colour schemes use three adjacent colours on the colour wheel. They are the colours which are side by side on a 12-part colour wheel, such as yellow-green, yellow, and yellow-orange. If you are going for a design that is primarily one colour, this is the suitable harmony choice.

harmony-analogous

Split Complements

The split complementary harmony takes the two colours directly on either side of the complementary colour. This allows for a wider range of colours. The split complimentary colour scheme is a most suitable choice for virtually any design as it delivers a strong visual contrast.

harmony-split

Triadic

Triadic colour scheme uses the colour two spaces to either side of the key colour’s complement. This means you are using three equally distanced colours on the colour wheel. This harmony is best used with only touches of colour, otherwise your design can become too vibrant.

harmony-triadic

Colour Models

A colour model is a system for creating a full range of colours from a small set of primary colours. The two types of colour models: additive and subtractive/ Additive colours models use light to display colour, while subtractive colour models use printing inks. The most common colour models that graphic designers work with are CMYK model for printing and the RGB model for computer display.

RGB Mode – Additive Colour Model

The RGB colour mode is an additive colour model. This means red, green and blue light are added together in various combinations to reproduce a wide spectrum of colours. RGB colour mode is best suited for the display of images in electronic systems, such as on television screens, computer monitors and digital photography. For web-page design the colours used are commonly specified using RGB. The colour mode has a 24-bit display, enabling most users to see 16.7 million colours of HTML RGB code.

RGB-Additive-Color-Model-1

CMYK Mode – Subtractive Colour Model

The CMYK colour mode (four-colour process) is a subtractive colour model. It is predominatly used in printing and works by partially or completely masking colours on a white background. The printed ink reduces the light that would otherwise be reflected. Therefore it is called a subtractive colour model because inks ‘subtract’ brightness from a white background from four colours: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black. CMYK is able to produce the entire spectrum of visible colours due to the process of half-toning. This means each colour is assigned a saturation level and miniscule dots of each of the three colours are printed in tiny patterns.

CMYK-Subtractive-Color-Model-1

Additional Colour Modes and Models

Bitmap

In the computer graphics environment, a bitmap or pixmap is a type of memory organization or image file format used to store digital images. The term bitmap means a ‘map of bits;. It implies one bit per pixel, while pixmap is used for images with multiple bits per pixel. For designers, this mode is mostly used in graphic design to save high resolution line art images, like a scanned signature or logo when the vector equivalent no longer exists.

wc_03

Grayscale

A grayscale digital image is an image in which the value of each pixel is a single sample. The grayscale image is also known as black-and-white and are composed exclusively of shades of grey. The type varies from black at the weakest intensity to white at the strongest. Grayscale images are also called monochromatic.

maxresdefault

Indexed Colour

The colour of each pixel is represented by a number; each number (the index) corresponds to a colour in the colour table (the palette). Indexed colour is a technique used to manage digital image colours in a limited fashion, in order to save computer memory and file storage. This helps to speed up display refresh and file transfers. A graphic designer will usually convert to indexed colour for web design or in multimedia applications.

Screen_color_test_VGA_16colors

Colour Mode

The colour mode or image mode, determines how the components of a colour are combined, based on the number of colour channels in the colour model. Colour modes include grayscale, RGB and CMYK, among others. Photoshop elements supports bitmap, grayscale, indexed and RGB colour modes.

Colour Profile

A colour profile is a set of data that characterises either a device such as a projector or colour space. Most colour profiles are in the form of an ICC profile. They can be embedded into images to specify the range of data. This ensures that users see the same colours on different devices. Every device that is processing colour should have its own ICC profile.

Colour profiles are often installed when a device is added to your system. The accuracy of these profiles varies from manufacturer. Consistent colour management requires accurate ICC-compliant profiles of all your colour devices. With an accurate profile, a program importing the image can correct any device differences and display a scan’s actual colours. To embed a colour profile in a document you created in Illustrator, Indesign or Photoshop, you must save or export the document in a format that supports ICC profiles. Your application will automatically assign the colour profile based on the settings you select in the Colour Settings dialog box.

Bibliography:

https://www.colormatters.com/color-and-design/basic-color-theory [4/12/18]

https://www.sessions.edu/color-calculator/ [4/12/18]

http://www.crayola.co.uk/faq/another-topic/what-are-the-primary-colors/ [4/12/18]

https://www.britannica.com/science/color#ref383843 [4/12/18]

https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-secondary-color-2577737 [4/12/18]

https://www.colourtherapyhealing.com/colour/tertiary-colours [4/12/18]

https://zevendesign.com/color-harmony-hulk-wears-purple-pants/ [4/12/18]

https://helpx.adobe.com/uk/photoshop/key-concepts/color-mode-image-mode.html [4/12/18]

https://www.designersinsights.com/designer-resources/understanding-color-models/ [4/12/18]

https://help.gnome.org/users/gnome-help/stable/color-whatisprofile.html.en [4/12/18]

https://helpx.adobe.com/uk/photoshop/using/working-with-color-profiles.html [4/12/18]

1.2 Explain the process of a colour managed workflow from image capture to image output

The power and control that digital technology brings to photography has developed significantly. Although getting accurate and predictable colour is still a challenge to many users, and colour management is often a complicated source. Every designers goal is to process a digital image from a camera to a final print as efficiently and accurately as possible. This process requires a few complex steps to undertake.

Colour Calibration

The first Colour management step begins with your monitor. You must ensure you have an accurately calibrated and profiled display. With an accurately calibrated and profiled display, you can have confidence that what you are seeing has a good resemblance to you image.

S5STUDIO-before-after-prints-900w-900x655

Calibrate using Colorimeter Hardware

A monitor calibration and profiling process includes an essential measurement device – a colorimeter or spectrophotometer. Both devices feature a full-spectrum, seven-colour sensor to help accurately characterise a variety of wide-gamut and normal displays. To operate it, you need to attach the device to the screen, connect it to a USB port and run the included calibration software.

By purchasing a calibrating measurement device is one way to ensure your monitor is calibrated to its true potential. Although it means investing in a lot of money if you are aiming for greater precision and control. However there are affordable alternatives that work well on a tight budget and help obtain colour consistency across all your monitors.

How does colour calibration work?

Before you calibrate your monitor, it is important to follow these several tips:

  • Turn on your monitor at least half an hour before calibration so it can warm up to its normal operating temperature.
  • Set your monitor’s resolution to its native, default screen resolution
  • Make sure you are calibrating in a room with moderate ambient lighting.
  • Review your monitor’s display controls.

Colour Settings

The next colour management step is to set the colour settings in Photoshop to define how you will handle colour and profiles. To set the colour settings on Mac Photoshop, go to ‘Photoshop’ – ‘Colour Settings’. For photographers, it is recommended you choose U.S Prepress Defaults to begin, and then change the settings to suit your needs. It is also advised to change your Gray working space to match the gamma of your RGB working space. To calibrate the settings, click the ‘Save’ button in the save dialog box.

photoshop-edit-colorsettings

Process RAW images

Following the colour settings, you need to begin to process RAW images with Adobe Camera Raw. Camera Raw contains built-in profiles for each supported camera and offers a choice of four different output spaces, including ProPhoto, RGB, Adobe RGB, Colourmatch RGB and sRGB. After processing the raw image and opening it in Photoshop, your image should be optimised and globally compatible.

Another editing software you could use is Adobe Lightroom. This is a useful processing application for raw files, as well as a library for storing, retrieving and searching for images. When you import your RAW image files on Adobe Lightroom, it will adjust your image preview display and convert it to a viewable image. Therefore there are a few common settings that you may need to adjust upon importing your RAW files:

  • White Balance
  • Exposure/contrast
  • Highlights
  • Clarity
  • Vibrance

Camera-Raw-VS-Lightroom-800x534

Previewing Prints

If you are designing a print image, Photoshop has the incredibly useful capability to use a printer profile and alter the display to accurately represent what your final print will look like. To use this tool, choose View -> Poof Setup in Photoshop. When you sort proof, you choose the exact printer profile, the rendering intent for the conversion, and the way you want Photoshop to display the soft proof.

When I am designing digital graphics on photoshop for social media purposes, I use the RGB preset as this is the most suitable colour mode for web use. Although our MediaVita print work is always set to CMYK hub, so that the printer source interprets the colours accurately.

Bibliography:

https://www.adobe.com/digitalimag/pdfs/color_managed_raw_workflow.pdf [4/12/18]

https://www.lightroompresets.com/blogs/pretty-presets-blog/13739185-tips-for-editing-a-raw-image [4/12/18]

https://www.digitaltrends.com/computing/how-to-calibrate-your-monitor/ [4/12/18]

2 Be able to manage and calibrate hardware to maintain colour accuracy

2.1 Identify the hardware devices in a digital workflow that require calibration

To maximize the quality of your digital workflow, it requires colour management hardware such as monitor calibration devices to ICC profiling. Colour calibration is an essential part of every photographer/designer’s workflow because it shows whether the colours displayed on your monitor are truly accurate.

Monitor Calibration

A properly calibrated monitor is essential for colour critical work such as digital photography or graphic design. A profiled screen gives you a trusted source for viewing images. In order to accurately profile a monitor, the colours that the screen outputs need to be analysed and compared with real colours, which is only possible with a hardware colorimeter, such as X-rite i1 Display Pro. This device attaches to the screen and measures its output while software forces it to display patches of specific colours. A colorimeter works by analyzing colours coming out of a display and provides necessary adjustments to colour, gamma, brightness and contrast via software. Once the calibration process finishes, these adjustments can be loaded via software each time the computer is rebooted or the information can be stored on a built-in look-up able. Hardware calibration process consumes significantly less time and can be performed on a periodic basis without much complexity.

Monitor-Calibration-670x335

Printer Device

It is important to calibrate your print device if you want your printed work to represent true colour reproduction of the materials you create. Calibrating your printer gives you the ability to predict and control its colour performance for accurate results. Printers use spectrophotometer, the type of device that printer measurement requires. If you need a profiled printer but cannot afford the measuring hardware, you can use a manual procedure that relies on user observation.

Camera

When shooting RAW files, you may have noticed a setting for something called a ‘Profile’, while processing your images. The choice of profile is important, because it influences how the colours will be rendered in the final image. All cameras see colours differently and you may have to carry out various edits in the post-processing stage to render the colours accurately. Calibration will mean you have a better, more accurate starting point and so each image will, in theory need fewer edits. Calibrating a camera works in a similar way to a monitor/printer. It involves creating a profile to correct those individual colour differences at the RAW processing stage. Camera profiles have to be matched to the lighting conditions for your specific camera when the image was created.

Color_Checker_Passport

To create a custom profile for your camera, you should ideally use Adobe Lightroom or Photoshop, because they make the process easy. Next you need to use Xrite ColourChecker Passport as this plug-in allows you to create profiles direct from Adobe Lightroom. This uses an industry standard layout with 24 colours commonly found. You can also use the bundled software to create tailor-made camera profiles for Adobe Camera Raw.

Bibliography:

https://www.theimagingwarehouse.com/Products/Colour-Management-Devices-for-Monitor-Calibration [4/12/18]

https://photographylife.com/how-to-calibrate-your-monitor [4/12/18]

https://smallbusiness.chron.com/calibrating-printer-for-58069.html [4/12/18]

https://www.photomodeler.com/kb/the_importance_of_camera_calibration/ [4/12/18]

https://camerajabber.com/how-to-calibrate-camera-colour/ [4/12/18]

 

2.2 Identify equipment used for colour calibration

To colour calibrate you are required to use a color meter equipment tool. Colour measurement devices are used to capture, communicate and evaluate colour. They help to ensure the colour being produced matches the colour that was originally specified. Colour meters take on many forms, but they all fall into two categories: tri-stimulus colorimeters and spectrophotometers.

Colorimeter

A colorimeter is a light-sensitive device used for measuring the transmittance and absorbance of light passing through a liquid sample. The device measures the intensity or concentration of the colour that develops upon introducing a specific reagent into a solution. It is designed to perform a type of psychological sample analysis by mimicking human eye-brain perception (to see colour the way we do).

There are two types of colorimeter – Color densitometers, which measure the density of primary colours and Color Photometers, which measure the colour reflection and transmission.

How they work

Using an internal light source, a colorimeter shines light down onto the surface of the sample. As the light reflects back up to the device, it passes through three filters: red, green and blue. These filters distill tri-stimulus (RGB) values that match how our eyes see colour.

045colorimeterpng

Common Applications

Colorimeters can be used to calibrate computer monitors to ensure the colours you see on screen are accurate. They are also used to specify colour. Designers can carry them around to capture inspiration colours for use in their designs.

They are predominately used in the production and inspection phases of manufacturing. One advantage is that most colorimeters are portable and useful for on-site tests.

Spectrophotometer

Spectrophotometers allow for more sophisticated colour measurements and can capture more data related to colour.

How they work

A spectrophotometer works almost the same way, except for one main difference – the filters. Instead of using three filters to determine the RGB values of the colour like a colorimeter, modern day spectrophotometers typically have 31 filters to measure the full colour spectrum. These filters measure light in each of 31 different wavelengths to determine the colour of the sample.

They can come in many shapes and sizes, from small handheld devices to large benchtop workhorses, to in-line devices used during manufacturing production. Since they can evaluate how colour will look under different light sources, spectrophotometers are ideal for identifying metamerism.

Common Applications

Spectrophotometers can measure just about anything, including liquids, plastics, paper, metal and fabrics. There are three primary types

  • Used for measuring colour on smooth or matte surfaces
  • Used for measure both excluding gloss and including gloss
  • Used for measuring colour that has been applied to textured surfaces such as textiles, carpets and plastics, as well as shiny or mirror-like surfaces, including metallic inks, printing over foil, and other highly glossy surfaces
  • Measures at multiple angles – used for specially coated pigments and effect coatings with additives like mica and prearlescents, used in nail polish and automotive coatings.

Advantages

They are built to support a connected colour management strategy while delivering the most reliable, repeatable and accurate measurements between operators and across manufacturing sites.

Spectrohotometers offer a higher level of flexibility and versatility than colorimeters because they offer multiple illuminant/observer combinations and can operate in multiple geometric arrangements. They are capable of measuring metamerism, identifying colorant strength, and analyzing a comprehensive range of sample types. They are also good at identifying colour differences missed by colorimeters. They are ideally suited for a broad range of applications in the research and development phase, including colour formulation and colour system development, as well as colour quality control throughout production.

Bibliography:

https://www.azosensors.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=324 [4/12/18]

https://www.tomshardware.co.uk/spyder4-monitor-calibration-image-quality,review-32762-2.html [4/12/18]

https://www.hunterlab.com/blog/color-measurement-2/colorimeter-vs-spectrophotometer-knowing-the-differences-among-color-measurement-technologies/ [4/12/18]

https://www.xrite.com/blog/colorimeter-vs-spectrophotometer [4/12/18]

2.3 Explain the importance of controlling the environment of the digital workplace

The digital workplace enables new, more effective ways of working. It raises employee engagement and agility. As a part of managing the health and safety in the evolving digital workplace, you must control the risks in your workplace.

To control the environment in the digital workplace, health and safety procedures must be put in place whilst using computers and electrical equipment.

A risk assessment should be carried out to identify the areas of hazards. A risk assessment is one way to identify the potential hazards in your workplace. This addresses the aspects related to what activities, processes or substances used that could injure employees or harm their health. After risk assessing, control measures should be put in place to prevent these hazards from happening.

Another way to control the workplace environment is by ensuring that there are not liquids near computer devices that could spill and damage the equipment. All equipment should all be neatly and tidily put together to prevent anyone from falling over and hurting themselves. The workplace building should also have clear fire evacuation routes and first aid facilities in the event of a fire hazard. At our workplace, we have a fire assembly point, where all employees are directed during the event of an office fire.

In my workplace we have to follow a set of safety procedures in order to protect ourselves and colleagues from hazards and risks. For example, I must make sure my Mac computer is switched off over the weekend, to ensure it does not burn electricity and overheat which could cause a fire. I make sure any drinks I have are placed away from my digital devices to prevent any damages to my computer. My electrical wires and leads are always neatly tucked away under my desk to prevent anyone from falling over and getting hurt.

Bibliography:

http://www.hse.gov.uk/toolbox/managing/managingtherisks.htm [4/12/18]

2.4 Obtain standard reference material and test cards as required

It is important to obtain calibration test cards as they can be used to calibrate and check your calibration values. The test card is made up of four sections. The top section is the three primary and three secondary colours: Red, green and blue, Yellow, Magenta and Cyan. The next section is black through to white using the four intermediate greys in the websafe palette. The third section is a grey scale in 10% steps from black to white and the fourth section grades from Black to White in 480 steps – one step per pixel. The bottom two sections will look ‘dithered’ if your monitor is set up to 256 colours (8 bit) or less, and the bottom section will look slightly ‘stepped’ in thousands of colours (16 bit). If your monitor does not display the test cards correctly, consider re-calibrating your monitor and if necessary, re-profiling your system.

jwcolourtestcard1024

How it works

You need to set up your monitor correctly by setting both the brightness and contrast controls at their default positions. Next adjust the brightness control until the black areas on the test card look true black. Then adjust the Contrast control until the white areas look pure white. You should be able to read a number (0-10) in each of the steps. 2.2y is the default gamma setting for sRGB.

Bibliography:

https://reeddesign.co.uk/testcard.htm [5/12/18]

https://panoramashots.co.uk/technical-notes/test-cards/ [5/12/18]

2.5 Calibrate the hardware devices of the system

In this section I am going to be discussing the major options for colour managing your monitor. The first two options, both hardware based, are strongly recommended systems that can help you achieve quality results with digital imaging.

The most popular hardware calibration colorimeters:

  • X-Rite i1 Display Pro
  • Datacolour Spyder 5 Pro
  • Pantone ColourMunki

colormunki.jpg

Direct Hardware Calibration

Direct Hardware Calibration uses the high bit depth tables in your monitor. This is the most sophisticated and most accurate method of monitor calibration available. This method requires reliable hardware inside the monitor and is only offered by premium monitor ssuch as the Eizo ColourEdge line of monitors. All NEC colour critical monitors can be hardware calibrated using SpectraView 2.

Software Calibration (with a hardware device)

Software calibration with a hardware device is the most approrpaite type of calibration for most users with standard monitors. It is affordable, simple and offers effective results. This method of calibration uses a colorimeter device to accurately read the colour coming from your monitor. It provides adjustments to colour, gamma, brightness and contrast via software. This information can be stored within the monitor istelf, which is why hardware calibration is very useful. A translation table between the colour you should be getting and the colour you actually are represented, is created and installed in your video card’s colour look up table. The signal leaving your video card is modified to produce more accurate colour from your monitor.

Bibliography:

https://imagescience.com.au/knowledge/colour-control-on-monitors [5/12/18]

https://photographylife.com/how-to-calibrate-your-monitor [5/12/18]

2.6 Create and Store hardware colour profiles

Hardware colour calibration is essential to make sure the colours seen on a computer screen closely represent the actual printed colours on a piece of artwork. Since computer screens use RGB colours to display colour and printers generally use CMYK colours for printing; it is important to calibrate the screen so it matches the output colours on the printer. On a Mac you can create colour profile by going to System Preferences, click the Display tab and then select Calibrate. This will then give you a step-by-step guide to creating a new colour profile.You can then give the profile an appropriate name and apply it to your display.

Bibliography:

http://osxdaily.com/2014/08/26/calibrate-display-mac/ [4/12/18]

2.7 Check that the colour profile calibration profiles are used in a colour managed digital workflow

In many software applications, a colour profile can be assigned and embedded automatically. Assigning the ICC profile to an incoming image provides for accurate appearance on screen through transformation using the input profile and display profile. A good ICC profile provides an accurate description of the characteristics of a digital device or working colour space. In even the most basic workflow, if the aim is to view images with true colour, then a monitor profile and a document profile is required in order to accurately view that image.

Monitor Display Profiles

Monitor display profiles are an important part of colour management. They are made in a process which uses an accurate screen sensor device. This is to access the display system capabilities and build the ICC profile which describes them. In this process, the system is calibrated by loading a Look Up Table to the systems video card. This measures calibrated appearance to produce an ICC profile. The Look Up Table is usually loaded straight to the screen’s internal circuits which operate at a higher bit depth to optimise the transformation of image data during display.

How to check the Colour Profile information

Since Adobe Acrobat Version 8, users are able to check and change colour management settings. This comes in useful when using the PDF file format for printing. In order to get the correct colours when printing an electronic document, the colour profile must be in CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black) not RGB (Red, Green and Blue), which is used for light, not ink or paint.

To check and customise your PDF document’s Colour Management settings choose ‘Edit’ from the menu bar, then ‘Properties’. Next click on ‘Colour Management’. Look for the colour profile information that has already been chosen.

Since Acrobat’s PDF format is designed to let you create multi-purpose documents such as for optimal printing and display computers, PDFs support several colour systems. They are usually called ‘Colour Space’/ When you export from another program, such as Indesign, Quark or Illustrator, to a PDF, it exports with a specific colour system. Documents designed for laser printers and printing presses often require a CMYK colour system. You can use Acrobat Pro to check a PDF’s colour space.

You check the colour space profile by following these steps:

  • Open the PDF in Acrobat Pro
  • Click ‘Advanced’ on the menu bar and choose ‘Print Production’, then select ‘Convert Colors’ on the Convert Colours fly-out menu. This opens the Convert Colours dialog box.
  • Click ‘Document colours’. This displays two boxes, ‘Colour spaces’ and ‘Spot colours’. Colour spcaes shows the various RGB and CMYK colours systems defined in the document.

Bibliography:

https://www.colourmanagement.net/advice/about-icc-colour-profiles [5/12/18]

https://www.techwalla.com/articles/how-to-check-color-management-settings-in-a-pdf-file-for-cmyk [5/12/18]

2.8 Explain the need to monitor the digital output against the relevant reference material at specified intervals

Common output formats are printed paper, sound, video, and on-screen documents. To control our output requirement, the user needs to put raw data in a computer which it processes to produce outputs. Typically a computer monitor’s output will take the form of screen or printer output.

By monitoring your digital output, will determine the file format type and colour mode to which you will need to apply to your artwork.

Digital Ouput Applications

Colour Profiles

RGB colour mode is used by computer monitors to display colours. It is suitable for display graphics on screen. It is applied to images for the web or e-mail mostly to reduce file size while maintaining colour integrity.

CMYK colour mode typically applies for images in a full-colour print brochure as it is able to prepare an image to be printed using process colours. You can also use CMYK colour mode to work directly with CMYK images scanned or imported from high-end systems.

File Format types

PNG file format is typically used for display of images on the web, as it supports most web browsers.

JPEG file format is commonly used to display photographs and other continuous-tone images in HTML documents.

GIF file format is mostly used to display indexed-colour graphics and images in HTML documents.

Bibliography:

https://www.bbc.com/bitesize/guides/zqg9q6f/revision/4 [5/12/18]

https://helpx.adobe.com/uk/photoshop/using/file-formats.html [5/12/18]

3 Be able to manage embedded image colour profiles

3.1 Establish whether an image has an embedded colour profile

Many images (especially edited images) include an embedded colour profile to ensure the colours within the image are retained. One of the easiest ways to find out the colour profile that the image is using is to open the image in Adobe Photoshop. Once the image is opened in Photoshop, click Edit, then select Colour Settings. This will display what colour profile the image is currently using.

Bibliography:

https://helpx.adobe.com/uk/photoshop/using/color-settings.html [4/12/18]

3.2 Assign and/or convert embedded colour profiles to image as required by business/organisation requirements

In my workplace, with my role as a marketing assistant, my tasks involve a lot of digital graphic design for web purposes. The most suitable colour profile for web that I have to assign to my file is RGB. This is because RGB is typically used for display of images on the web, as it supports most web browsers. I am able to assign this colour profile using an editing software, such as Adobe Photoshop which I mainly use when designing graphics for web.

How to assign the RGB Colour Profile

In order to assign the RGB colour profile using Adobe Photoshop, I have to set the working space to this profile by opening up the ‘Edit’ menu and clicking on ‘Colour Settings’. This will present me with the following options: Next I look at the ‘Working Spaces’ section and select the sRGB profile from the RGB drop-down.

color_settings

working_space

The second procedure involves Colour Proofing. Tho ensure my design is set to RGB colour profile, I need to click on ‘View’ menu and then on ‘Proof setup’. This will show another selection, then I need to click on ‘Monitor RGB’ at the bottom.

monitor_rgb

Next I need to activate the colour proofing as it is off by default. I do this by clicking on the ‘View’ menu, and clicking on ‘Proof colours’ if there no check already next to it.

Bibliography:

http://usabilitypost.com/2008/07/30/photoshop-color-profiles-for-web-images/ [5/12/18]

3.3 Save an image with an appropriate embedded profile for screen use

If an image is being used for screen use (e.g for a website) it is important to make sure it has the appropriate embedded colour profile so the colours are displayed correctly. Since computer screens use RGB to display colours; we want the image colour profile to match this. In Adobe Photoshop, click Edit, then select Colour Settings. Then under Colour Management, select RGB colour profile from the drop down list.

Bibliography:

https://helpx.adobe.com/uk/photoshop/using/color-settings.html [4/12/18]

3.4 Select an appropriate printer profile for use with image printing

At my workplace, if I am designing a print graphic, the appropriate printer profile has to be selected in order for the colour output to be as accurate as possible. A printer profile will determine how colours are to be printed for a specific printer and paper. The industry standard setting for printer profile when designing an image print is CMYK hub. To create my print designs, I usually use Adobe Photoshop or Indesign as my editing software.

How to assign an ICC printer profile

An ICC profile is a set of data that describes the properties of a colour spcae, the range of colours that a printer can output. In order to produce the highest quality image, it is important to focus your attention to your ICC profiles. Each printer, computer, camera and paper all will have their own unique ICC profile. The most widely used colour space is Adobe RGB.

To assign my printer profile on Photoshop, I need to follow these steps:

  • Choose File – Print
  • Expand the Color Management section at right
  • For colour handling, choose Photoshop Manages Colours
  • For printer profile, select the profile that best matches your output device and paper type. If there are any profiles associated with the current printer, they are placed at the top of the menu, with the default profile selected.

CMYK profile for Print

The reason printing uses CMYK is because it covers most lighter colour ranges quite easily, compared to RGB. CMYK is essential for representing colour on printed media as it is the most efficient way to create a continous spectrum of colours.

The international standard ISO 12647/2-2004 is being used by more and more printers in the UK and Europe each day. This was developed through testing a large number of presses using a range of paper types and produced a set of datasets. These were then used to create the ICC profiles ‘ISO coated.icc’ and ‘ISO web coated.icc’ for sheetfed litho on coated papers, and web offset on lightweight coated.

Bibliography:

https://helpx.adobe.com/uk/photoshop/using/printing-color-management-photoshop1.html [5/12/18]

https://www.dickermanprints.com/blog/what-is-an-icc-profile [5/12/18]

http://www.innovaart.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Printing-With-ICC-Profiles.pdf [5/12/18]

http://www.ne14design.co.uk/articles/which-cmyk-profile.htm [5/12/18]

 

4 Be able to store image/files for future use

4.1 Identify the intended future use of images

In this section I am going to be identifying the intended future use of images and what digital technology advances could be developed in the next few years to come.

Future Image Uses

The advances in image processing and artificial intelligence will involve spoken commands, translating languages, recognizing and tracking people and things, diagnosing medical conditions and performing surgery.

The concept of modern computing can go beyond the present limits and in future, image processing technology will advance and the visual system of man can be replicated. The future trend in remote sensing will be towards improved sensors. The future for image processing applications of satellite based imaging ranges from planetary exploration to surveillance applications.

Boosted Augmentation Technologies

The increased interest in Augmented reality, image recognition is likely to continue to make advancements that will serve many industries to come. Companies such as CrowdOptic are providing real-time video and sensor augmentation to virtual worlds that allow viewers to analyse systems in buildings, regions and other locations.

Ad Targeting

Image recognition will also be seen in advertising. This technology has the potential to provide brands with vital information about their customers, such as their interests and demographics. Using image recognition, brands can determine which products appear most often in their customer’s photos.

3D Printing

The ultimate in home shopping: cheap 3D printers to exist in every home can print out almost anything – electronics, furniture, food, and medicine – from files purchased and downloaded from the internet.

Bibliography:

https://imagga.com/blog/7-image-recognition-uses-of-the-future/ [5/12/18]

https://www.ukessays.com/essays/computer-science/image-processing-for-future-applications-computer-science-essay.php [5/12/18]

https://www.gislounge.com/future-mobile-spatial-applications-image-recognition/ [5/12/18]

https://futurism.com/images/things-to-come-a-timeline-of-future-technology-infographic [5/12/18]

4.2 Record and store information

One of the main benefits of storing your documents digitally is having your files safe and secure from data thieves and unwanted guests. You have the option of securing only certain folders and files, keeping them accessible only to expertise. Information is a critical business resources, therefore it is important that they have a good records management system in place to store and retrieve data easily. In this section I am going to be discussing effective ways to record and store information in the workplace.

At my workplace all of our electronic records are arranged consistently and logically on our local backup server so that they can easily be identified and located to use. We make sure they are structured into folders and sub-folders with the other electronic records, including emails, that belong with that subject, case or project. Each folder name is unique: this facilitates more efficient sharing and retrieval of information. Our default space for storing electronic records is a shared drive.

To make recording data easier at our workplace, when we create a new document, we always use saved templates located on our server, which are used for frequently used types of documents, such as reports, presentations, e mailers or graphics etc. This provides a consistent and professional format with appropriate branding and document properties such as text, font, colours etc. This also prevents information being overwritten.

Shared Drive

When a document is completed, it preferably should be saved onto a shared and accessible drive. This has a numerous advantages including:

  • Avoids duplication
  • Allows for accurate version control
  • Improved access for information retrieval, both for business use and as necessary to respond to information requests.

featured-map-network-drive

Store Files in the Cloud

Cloud storage is another method we use at MediaVita to store our information. With cloud-related solutions like Dropbox, G+Drive, or Microsoft OneDrive. Cloud storage applications allow you to set aside one or more directories that automatically sync whatever service your using. The files can be accessed from anywhere and they can be set to private or public.

The following advantages include:

  • Immediate Backups
  • Revision History

1 LIjrnSP__Vtuo3TVnQOj3g

USB stick

For larger projects that require further attention to, our directors Lee and Antony sometimes transfer the files onto a USB stick in order to complete the project whilst working from home. A USB stick is inserted to the USB port and is seen by the computer as a removable drive. They typically come in sizes from 512MG to 32GB upwards depending on the price paid. They can hold large quantities of data and are extremely portable so the user can take them wherever they go.

Bibliography:

https://www.capitalmds.com/benefits-storing-information-digitally/ [5/12/18]

https://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-information-storage-retrieval-systems-organization-75891.html [5/12/18]

https://www.ucl.ac.uk/library/about-us/records-office/managing-electronic-records [5/12/18]

https://www.bbc.com/bitesize/guides/z7rk7ty/revision/6 [5/12/18]

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